Educational leadership — a necessit understanding school as a social system

Urlich Hammerschmidt, Waldblick - Oberschule Freital - Niederhaslich, Saxony, Germany






The article describes schools as a social system with three fundamental systemic features: high complexity, self-reference and loose coupling. Accepting these theoretical basics, the article explains the organizational logic of teaching and learning, comparing and contrasting schools difference to other  organizations , such as factories, bureaucracy, "creative organizations" (e.g., marketing agencies).Finally, the article describes the logic of schools as a "mixed logic". On the base of this thesis, the article concludes educational leadership as a leadership focused on the teaching and learning processes, but switching between these and processes with other logics. Further it concludes fundamental qualities, capacities and leading capabilities for successful educational leadership in schools.


Key words: educational leadership, school, social system, 



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